Enero 21, 2021

Dubochet, Frank and Henderson Awarded Nobel Prize in Chemistry

04 Octubre 2017, 10:56 | Bibiana Flor

Dubochet, Frank and Henderson Awarded Nobel Prize in Chemistry

Dubochet, Frank and Henderson Awarded Nobel Prize in Chemistry

Because the powerful electron beam destroys biological material, electron microscopes were long believed to work only when imaging dead matter.

On Monday, the Nobel Prize for Medicine was awarded to American trio Jeffrey C. Hall, Michael Rosbash and Michael W. Young for their work on circadian rhythms, often referred to as our body clocks.

Ordinary electron microscopy makes biomolecules, which contain water, collapse.

"Jacques Dubochet added water to electron microscopy". The technique is used in cryo-EM. Scientists have wielded CRISPR as a tool to shape organisms' genes, demonstrating what a few researchers say is its Nobel-worthy potential. Most other proteins, by contrast, are disorderly, asymmetrical and filled with randomly positioned particles.

It's really hard to get a good look at the stuff life is made of, known as "biomolecules", in action.

Basically, cryo-EM lets biologists see what they're studying, from the surface of the Zika virus to human enzymes involved in disease.

Henderson took a major step forward out of frustration with x-ray crystallography: He couldn't coax proteins embedded in a cell membrane to crystallize.

What did the laureates contribute?

Previous electron microscopes were less useful, partly because they need the sample to be placed in a vacuum. Henderson imaged a protein in three dimensions down to the atomic level.

This year's prize was awarded for developing a "cool method of imaging the molecules of life". He developed an image processing method where a sharper, 3-dimensional image was rendered from the merging and analysis of blurrier, 2-dimensional images produced by the microscope. He could then construct a 3D image from these 2D projections.

In the early 1930s, physicist Ernst Ruska and engineer Max Knoll invented the electron microscope that could view objects 400 times smaller than what was capable with the naked eye. Dubochet realized that if the water was frozen quickly enough-vitrified, like glass-ice crystals wouldn't form. In this "vitrified" sample, the water is disordered but the 3D structure of the biomolecules in the sample is retained.

What is cryo-EM used for?

"It is truly transformative allowing us to see new images of biomolecules - I am personally very happy for Richard who predicted this would be possible many years previously", added Dame Carol Robinson, Professor of Chemistry at the Physical and Theoretical Chemistry Laboratory, Oxford University. The technique revealed which proteins allow cancer cells to evade chemotherapy and identified the Zika virus.

Otras noticias

Tendencias Ahora

Egypt's El-Sisi Caught Buying Grenades from North Korea's Kim Jong Un
Mattis suggested that the Trump administration was exploring a host of ways to influence the North, including through diplomacy. Markey stressed there is no military solution to the North Korean nuclear threat.

Trump says Las Vegas shooter "sick", will discuss gun laws later
Steve Bannon, Trump's former chief strategist and campaign manager, said a firearms pivot from Trump would be "impossible". House Republicans do have gun legislation pending, and it would legalize the sale of silencers.

Brother of Vegas shooter says he's 'completely dumbfounded'
She once worked at the Atlantis Casino Resort and Spa in Reno, which said Danley left the company "several years ago". His typically quiet community is now overrun with police and reporters and streets are blocked off, Lipani said.

Google Home Mini: What we know so far
It automatically adjusts for where the Max is placed in a room and dynamically tunes sound within seconds when it's moved. At the heart of the Google Home Max is the new AI powered Smart Sound system that adapts to home conditions on the fly.

Ford CEO Hackett to outline plan to Wall Street
This investment is expected to generate 13 new electrified Ford products, though not all of those 13 will be pure electric models. Earlier this year, Ford chose to move production of its next-generation Focus sedan from North America to China , saving money.

Dodgers, Indians Are Betting Favorites In MLB Playoffs
They are remembered for being swept by the New York Giants in a time when The World Series was the only postseason baseball knew. Boston won the AL East for the second-consecutive season, but look to avoid being bounced out in their first series again.

JC Penney Company, Inc. (NYSE: JCP)
Volume levels spiked and JCP actually managed a breakout which translated to 38.55 million shares changing hands on the day. JCP is already driving a -61.06% loss over the course of the past year and is now down -56.8% since this point in 2017.

Crystal Palace nightmare continues with huge loss at Manchester United
They had seven attempts on goal, only getting one on target all game, and couldn't prevent United from creating a plethora of chances.

European Union remains silent over violence at Catalonia indolence referendum
Barcelona's massive wholesale market has been left deserted as some 770 food businesses have closed for the day. Catalonia is located on the eastern part of the Iberian Peninsula and has a population of 7.52 million people.

Barcelona president admits club could quit La Liga
We argue that re is a political solution in respect of citizens. "Together we are unstoppable in defending democracy". In a statement Monday, Bartomeu said Barcelona would "support the call for strike action tomorrow".