Image processing and machine learning on Pixel 2 — Pixel Visual Core
Latest Windows 10 update rolled out
Microsoft tries again with troubled Surface Book line
Unprecedented star collision observed through light and gravitational waves
Scientists gene-edit piglets, bringing transplants to humans closer
11 Agosto 2017, 04:55 | Verda Sainz
Harvard geneticist George Church
Animal organs could be transplanted into people within two years, according to a scientist who has modified a pig's genome to remove harmful viruses.
The news comes as more than 6,000 patients waiting for an organ transplant in the United Kingdom, according to Government figures.
The most genetically modified animals in existence have been created to help end a shortage of organs for transplant, say USA researchers.
They can move around within the genome, and in xenotransplantation, there is the possibility that they could jump from the transplanted organ into human cells - and, in doing so, disrupt the cells they integrate into, similar to what was seen with some early gene therapy vectors. In it, the scientists show how they were able to generate 37 designer pigs without active porcine endogenous retroviruses (PERVs) that can be transmitted to humans and are potentially deadly.
Worldwide, human organs for transplant are in short supply.
For the study, the researchers identified 25 genomic sites where PERVs present in the genome of pig fibroblast cells, and using CRISPR they deactivated all.
Pigs, whose organs are roughly the same size and shape as ours, have always been eyed as a possible source of functional transplants for humans, especially as transplant waiting lists continue to lengthen. However, other researchers argue that it could be years before scientists even know if pig organ transplants are safe. An estimated 22 people die each day waiting for an organ transplant.
If successful this could pave the way for organ transplants such as livers, hearts and other organs from pigs into humans. However, pigs also have many viruses embedded in their DNA, passed down the generations in sperm and eggs. Yang has also invented eGenesis, a few years back to advance the CRISPR-Cas9 technology in order to solve the organ shortage. The virus, which is part of the pigs' DNA, has been an issue for human-pig transplants in the past because of concerns that it could infect humans. They allowed each egg to develop into an embryo and implanted it in the uterus of a surrogate mother.
The National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) code for the care and use of animals for scientific purposes states that all teaching and research activities "must balance whether the potential effects on the wellbeing of the animals involved is justified by the potential benefits". They grew the resulting embryos in lab dishes and then transferred healthy ones to sows, hoping for pregnancies. When these pig cells grew in the laboratories, next to human embryonic kidney cells, these viruses spread to the human cells.
Dr. Church's company eGenesis, would be selling the genetically altered pig organs.
In fact, a team of scientists from the University of Alabama at Birmingham recently engineered pig organs that are free of carbohydrates, which typically make the organs targets for rejection.
Stocks down, gold up after North Korea threat
London's FTSE 100 was almost 1% down during morning trading with share indices in Germany, France and Italy also in the red. In other precious metals , silver surged 1.7% to $17.20 an ounce after hitting $17.24, its highest since June 14.
Indians acquire outfielder Jay Bruce from Mets
He could have received an $18 million qualifying offer at the end of this season, but the Mets chose to trade him now. The unexpected twist in this Bruce trade is that the Yankees reportedly showed a lot of interest in him as well.
Uber investor sues former CEO Kalanick for fraud
Benchmark is apparently having none of this and is pushing for the lawsuit in order to prevent Kalanick's return . Uber is also battling a lawsuit with Alphabet Inc.'s self-driving auto business and a probe by the U.S.
Guardiola returns to Man City drawing board
He has done so for three clubs, including for the Seagulls in the League Cup in 2008 - the last time the two sides met. The England right back forced his way out of a Tottenham side that finished ahead of City in second place.
Meteor shower peaks this weekend
The meteors are actually tiny dust and particles from the tail of the comet as it orbits around the sun. ABAA's president Jayanth Basvarajaiyah says, "It is a attractive experience, if you do get to see it".
2016 down as warmest year on record
The draft report makes clear the depth and breadth of the evidence for how and why the climate is being disrupted. Recurring natural shifts in atmospheric patterns can affect temperature and precipitation from months to years.